Early diagnosis of cancer: 6 tests you can do right



Early diagnosis of cancer: 6 tests you can do right

In fact, one out of three cancers can be prevented, and one third can be cured by early diagnosis.

Cancer is a very dangerous disease. Currently, it is estimated that 150000 new cases and 75,000 deaths each year. This is alarming. Over the years, cancer patients are increasing, irrespective of age and are always detected at a late stage. Therefore, early detection and treatment should always be self-aware.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Nghiem Luat, General Hospital of Medlatec, said: "Some cancers can show signs and symptoms of cancer such as skin cancer, cervix, breast, rectum and mouth, so It can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage, but many cancers do not show signs and symptoms in the process. "

According to Assoc. Prof. Nguyen Nghiem Luat, the most accurate diagnosis of cancer should be based on:

- Blood and urine tests

- Diagnostic imaging (x-ray, ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or PET-CT)

- cytology & more ...

Based on the symptoms, the doctor will make specific tests, and based on the surgery to determine the specific cancer is likely.

Here are the methods of identifying early cancer for the most common types of cancers you can perform at hospitals in Vietnam today:

1. Blood test - Cost: fluctuate in the range of 20,000 - 500,000 VND

What is a blood test?

This is a more accurate way of identifying the cancer, or more accurately, measuring the amount of cancer in the blood. This test is very useful in assessing severe, mild conditions as well as predicting the course of the disease during treatment. Blood tests for cancer germs need to be done in multiple steps, with costs ranging from 20,000 to 500,000 for each type of test.

Procedure for blood counts?

The doctor will take a small amount of blood from the patient's body to be tested to determine the number of red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, and to classify white blood cells. For normal people, peripheral blood cells do not have young blood cells (juvenile cells).

Blood tests help detect the risk of blood cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer.

Blood tests can identify CA125 antigen - a type of cancer antigen 125 in the blood, and can also detect early ovarian cancer, identify CA153 antigen for breast cancer detection, CA 199 detection UT pancreas, stomach

However, according to Dr. Luong Quoc Chinh, Bach Mai Hospital, the blood test does not confirm sure to find cancer cells because the test results are sometimes negative, sometimes positive.

According to this opinion, according to Prof. Nguyen Sa Trung, Head of the Medical Department of the HCM City University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vice President of the Vietnam Association for Pathophysiology and Toxicology said that the blood or urine test for early cancer The letter is uncertain because most of the signs of cancer are not just cancer cells but can also be produced by normal cells or cells of benign diseases. For example, PSA is the hallmark of prostate cancer, which can also be elevated in people with prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia. Or AFP is also in people with hepatitis but not cancer ...

The cost of blood tests at some hospitals?

Blood tests for cancer need to be done through many steps and methods, with the cost of steps ranging from 20,000 VND to 500,000 VND.

- Medlatec Hospital: 20,000 - 150,000 VND depending on the type of test

- National Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion: 18,000 - 500,000 VND

- Thu Cuc International General Hospital: fluctuation in the range of 40,000 - 90,000 VND

2. The method of PET / CT scan can detect about 80% of cancers. - Cost: over 20 million VND

What is PET / CT?

PET / CT is a nuclear medicine device that uses a combination of PET and CT to detect about 80% of cancers. For cancer diagnosis and treatment, PET / CT imaging can help detect early cancer soon after the body has developed a change in pathology without compromising its appearance. Structurally.

Special equipment also helps in finding patients in the location of metastatic cancer, the location of primary cancer, help doctors prognosis and effective treatment methods.

PET / CT screening procedure?

The basic principle of PET / CT imaging is that it records the metabolism in the cell (at the molecular level, cell level). Then the PET / CT image will tell us about the changes in the cell's metabolism (PET), the exact location of the lesion (CT) .

For PET / CT, a dose of positron radiation is given intravenously. It is a glucose derivative because cancer cells absorb and metabolize more glucose than other cells. Once injected with radioactive material, the body releases gamma rays and PET / CT machines will calculate from these gamma rays to receive images from different cells of the body. As a result, abnormalities in the metabolism in the cells will be noted, just before a structural change.

Patients who are at high risk for cancer or patients after genetic testing, blood tests for certain indications of cancer should be screened for PET / CT. PET / CT can detect about 80% of cancers because glucose proliferation is common in cancer cells. However, there are some non-proliferating cancer cells that work with Glucose, which only increases metabolism, such as fat and protein, can be difficult to detect.

Dr. Mai Trong Khoa - director of the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Oncology - Bach Mai Hospital - also confirmed: "PET / CT helps detect early tumor levels of molecular level, cell level; Disease classification is accurate, evaluating the status of organs in the body. This technique also supports the assessment of the effectiveness of treatments. "

Cost of PET / CT screening in hospitals:

In Vietnam, in addition to Cho Ray Hospital, a PET / CT machine complex was also equipped at Viet Duc Hospital, Bach Mai Hospital, Military Hospital 108.

- Cho Ray Hospital: over 25 million VND

- Bach Mai Hospital: over VND 28 million

- Viet Duc Hospital: over 20 million VND

- Military Hospital 108: over 20 million VND

3. Tumor examination to detect blood cancer - Cost: fluctuation from 500,000 VND - 1,000,000 VND

What is a marrow test?

This is the method used to more accurately determine the patient's blood cancer risk. In this procedure, the lumbar puncture will be performed by a specialist and taken to the lab to classify and identify the types of blood cells in the pulp. If the amount of Junvenile cells in the blood is high, exceeding 5% or even more than 30%, it is possible to identify patients with blood cancer.

The marrow test procedure?

Myeloma has several methods for identifying types of cancer, including: Immunophenotyping; Genetic testing; CSF examination.

+ Immunophenotyping Test: Run about 2ml of marrow then use "monoclonal antibody" to identify and classify blood cancer.

Genetics testing: Take about 2ml of pulp, the purpose of this method is to look at the nature of blood cells and chromosomal abnormal changes.

CSF examination: Take a measure of cerebrospinal fluid from the lumbar spine to examine whether the central nervous system is affected (usually the central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord).

The cost of testing marrow at some hospitals:

- Hospital for Hematology and Blood Transfusion: 70,000 VND for marrow aspiration; Surgery for bone marrow aspirate including multiple needles to aspirate the pulp about 470,000 VNĐ.

- Hanoi Medical University Hospital: lumbar puncture: 35,000 VND; Bone marrow biopsy: 100,000 VND; Identification of malignant blood genotypes: 800,000 VND

4. Pap smear - Cost: fluctuation from 100,000 VND - 1,800,000 VND

What is Pap test?

Pap tests are used to detect pre-cancerous cells before they can turn into invasive cancer. If pre-cancerous cells are found, treatment and prevention can be initiated before it starts cancer.

Implementation process?

Pap tests can be done in two ways:

- Method 1: The cervical cell sample is taken directly from the cervix and spread on the menarche and then sent to the laboratory for processing and reading the results under the microscope.

Limitations: Cells are often stacked on top of each other, making it difficult to see the cells in the lower layers. Because it is not filtered, cervical cells can mimic white blood cells, mucus, fungus or bacterial infections, so that results are difficult to guarantee. Moreover, as it spreads directly on the canal, the cells can dry out, which is difficult to assess when dry.

- Method 2: The sample taken from the cervix can also be placed in a bottle containing special preservatives rather than on the menopause. Vials containing cells and preservatives are sent to the laboratory. The technicians then use special tools and solutions to dissolve the impurities (blood, inflammatory cells and mucus) then the treated cells are spread on the glass, dye and under the microscope. This method is called fluid-based cytology or fluid-based cytology.

This method has the advantage that the mucus, bacteria, fungus and inflammatory cells in the sample ... have been eliminated so the cervical cells are cleaner, more uniformly spread on the glass slides. , not fast drying should result in more accurate test results. The technique is also more likely to detect cellular changes that are not due to pre-cancerous lesions, nor should it be checked as traditional Pap.

Cost of cervical cytology testing in some hospitals:

- Hung Viet Cancer Hospital: Package for early detection of cervical cancer: 1,050,000 VND

- Hospital K: Colposcopy: 240,000 VND

- Medlatec Hospital: 100,000 - 530,000 VND

- Hanoi Obstetric Hospital: 500,000 VND

- Sai Gon Psychological Center: Pap smear test: 100,000 VND

- FV Hospital: Cervical cancer screening package: 1,800,000 VND

Mammogram mammogram for women over 35 - 40 years - Cost: from 150,000 VND - 2,200,000 VND

What is a mammogram?

Mammography is a special mammogram radiology technique commonly used to assist in the diagnosis of breast cancer in women. This method helps detect abnormalities in the mammary ducts, where the origin of 95% of breast cancer cells. Mammography combined with ultrasound will immediately identify abnormal breast cysts.

Currently, mammography is considered one of the important methods for screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer. This method is usually indicated in women with no breast symptoms for the purpose of detecting early breast cancer, so screening mammography is usually indicated only in women over 35 to 40 years of age. and periodic mammogram every 1-2 years.


- The patient will sit or stand in front of the camera

Place the breast on a flat surface

- Then there will be a plastic sheet over the breast to squeeze the breast.

Breastpressure to delist the mammary gland to make it easier to see the mammary gland, keeping the breast fixed will limit the picture noise, and when the squeeze is squeezed, it also limits the amount of X-ray exposure. Because there is no posture It is possible to capture the whole mammary gland so that there will be multiple postures for mammography to obtain the full image of the mammary gland.

In non-menopausal women mammography should be done at 1 week after the menopause to be able to easily record images due to decreased levels of estrogen in the blood, breast tenderness less water retention and less strain.

Mammographic mammogram costs in some hospitals:

- Hung Viet Cancer Hospital: Early detection package for breast cancer: 1.130.000 VND

- Hospital K: Mammogram 2 mammography: VND 220,000

- Bach Mai Hospital: VND 150,000 - VND250,000

- Hanoi Obstetric Hospital: Breast Cancer Screening: 150,000 VND

- Hanoi Medical University Hospital: MRI with injection: 2,200,000 VND - No injections: 1,700,000 VND; General breast ultrasound: 30,000 VND; Breast biopsy: 100,000 VND.

- Sai Gon Psychiatric Hospital: Breast ultrasound: over 100,000 VND; Examination and counseling: 80.000 VND

- FV Hospital: Screening package: VND 1,300,000

6. Colorectaloscopy - Should be done for everyone under the age of 50 - Cost: from 350,000 VND - over 5,000,000 VND

According to BS. Vu Truong Khanh - Deputy Head of Department of Gastroenterology Bach Mai Hospital, colorectal cancer is one of digestive carcinoma with good prognosis, however, if detected late, the same as all types of cancer. Other letters, the ability to treat less effective. To detect early colonoscopy early stage.

The majority of colorectal cancers occur in people over 50 years of age. Therefore, colonoscopy should be performed for everyone under the age of 50, including those without symptoms.

To prevent colon cancer, the best method is to complete colonoscopy.

Colonoscopy procedure?

Endoscopic imaging is easy to see and concurrently with endoscopy, biopsy can be performed to check the organism, cells, determine the nature of the disease, locate precisely where the disease occurs ... The more accurate the diagnosis will be.

The endoscope can help you see the entire inside of the colon. If there are polyps in the colon that need to be removed, you can also use an electric knife attached to the endoscope to burn directly to remove the polyps. On the operating table, the endoscope can help doctors check the condition of the disease in an intestinal cavity should not miss the point of operation.

Cost of colonoscopy in some hospitals:

- Bach Mai Hospital: 350,000 VND

- Medlatec Hospital: VND 500,000 - VND 1.2 million

- FV Hospital: Screening package: VND 5,600,000

- Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy: 900,000 VND (normal endoscopy) and 2.800.000 VND (anesthesia using anesthesia)

- Hanoi Medical University Hospital: 1,800,000 VND (anesthesia with anesthesia)

- Sai Gon Psychiatric Hospital: Colonic colonoscopy with anesthesia: 2,120,000 VND; Blood test for stools hidden in feces: More than 80,000 VND

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